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Html table merge cells

HTML Tables

HTML Table Example

Defining an HTML Table

An HTML table is defined with the

Each table row is defined with the

Example

Note: The

HTML Table — Adding a Border

If you do not specify a border for the table, it will be displayed without borders.

A border is set using the CSS border property:

Example

Remember to define borders for both the table and the table cells.

HTML Table — Collapsed Borders

If you want the borders to collapse into one border, add the CSS border-collapse property:

Example

HTML Table — Adding Cell Padding

Cell padding specifies the space between the cell content and its borders.

If you do not specify a padding, the table cells will be displayed without padding.

To set the padding, use the CSS padding property:

Example

HTML Table — Left-align Headings

By default, table headings are bold and centered.

To left-align the table headings, use the CSS text-align property:

Example

HTML Table — Adding Border Spacing

Border spacing specifies the space between the cells.

To set the border spacing for a table, use the CSS border-spacing property:

Example

Note: If the table has collapsed borders, border-spacing has no effect.

HTML Table — Cells that Span Many Columns

To make a cell span more than one column, use the colspan attribute:

Example

HTML Table — Cells that Span Many Rows

To make a cell span more than one row, use the rowspan attribute:

Example

HTML Table — Adding a Caption

To add a caption to a table, use the tag:

Example

Note: The tag must be inserted immediately after the

A Special Style for One Table

To define a special style for a special table, add an id attribute to the table:

Example

Now you can define a special style for this table:

And add more styles:

Chapter Summary

  • Use the HTML

HTML Exercises

HTML Table Tags

For a complete list of all available HTML tags, visit our HTML Tag Reference.

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Table — Merge CellsВ¶

Word allows contiguous table cells to be merged, such that two or more cells appear to be a single cell. Cells can be merged horizontally (spanning multple columns) or vertically (spanning multiple rows). Cells can also be merged both horizontally and vertically at the same time, producing a cell that spans both rows and columns. Only rectangular ranges of cells can be merged.

Table diagrams¶

Diagrams like the one below are used to depict tables in this analysis. Horizontal spans are depicted as a continuous horizontal cell without vertical dividers within the span. Vertical spans are depicted as a vertical sequence of cells of the same width where continuation cells are separated by a dashed top border and contain a caret (‘^’) to symbolize the continuation of the cell above. Cell ‘addresses’ are depicted at the column and row grid lines. This is conceptually convenient as it reuses the notion of list indices (and slices) and makes certain operations more intuitive to specify. The merged cell A below has top, left, bottom, and right values of 0, 0, 2, and 2 respectively:

Basic cell access protocol¶

There are three ways to access a table cell:

  • Table.cell(row_idx, col_idx)
  • Row.cells[col_idx]
  • Column.cells[col_idx]

Accessing the middle cell of a 3 x 3 table:

Basic merge protocol¶

A merge is specified using two diagonal cells:

Accessing a merged cell¶

A cell is accessed by its “layout grid” position regardless of any spans that may be present. A grid address that falls in a span returns the top-leftmost cell in that span. This means a span has as many addresses as layout grid cells it spans. For example, the merged cell A above can be addressed as (0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0), or (1, 1). This addressing scheme leads to desirable access behaviors when spans are present in the table.

The length of Row.cells is always equal to the number of grid columns, regardless of any spans that are present. Likewise, the length of Column.cells is always equal to the number of table rows, regardless of any spans.

Cell content behavior on merge¶

When two or more cells are merged, any existing content is concatenated and placed in the resulting merged cell. Content from each original cell is separated from that in the prior original cell by a paragraph mark. An original cell having no content is skipped in the contatenation process. In Python, the procedure would look roughly like this:

Merging four cells with content ‘a’ , ‘b’ , » , and ‘d’ respectively results in a merged cell having text ‘anbnd’ .

Cell size behavior on merge¶

Cell width and height, if present, are added when cells are merged:

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Removing a redundant row or column¶

Collapsing a column. When all cells in a grid column share the same w:gridSpan specification, the spanned columns can be collapsed into a single column by removing the w:gridSpan attributes.

Word behavior¶

  • Row and Column access in the MS API just plain breaks when the table is not uniform. Table.Rows(n) and Cell.Row raise EnvironmentError when a table contains a vertical span, and Table.Columns(n) and Cell.Column unconditionally raise EnvironmentError when the table contains a horizontal span. We can do better.
  • Table.Cell(n, m) works on any non-uniform table, although it uses a visual grid that greatly complicates access. It raises an error for n or m out of visual range, and provides no way other than try/except to determine what that visual range is, since Row.Count and Column.Count are unavailable.
  • In a merge operation, the text of the continuation cells is appended to that of the origin cell as separate paragraph(s).
  • If a merge range contains previously merged cells, the range must completely enclose the merged cells.
  • Word resizes a table (adds rows) when a cell is referenced by an out-of-bounds row index. If the column identifier is out of bounds, an exception is raised. This behavior will not be implemented in python-docx .

Glossary¶

Understanding merge XML intuitively¶

A key insight is that merged cells always look like the diagram below. Horizontal spans are accomplished with a single w:tc element in each row, using the gridSpan attribute to span additional grid columns. Vertical spans are accomplished with an identical cell in each continuation row, having the same gridSpan value, and having vMerge set to continue (the default). These vertical continuation cells are depicted in the diagrams below with a dashed top border and a caret (‘^’) in the left-most grid column to symbolize the continuation of the cell above.:

The table depicted above corresponds to this XML (minimized for clarity):

XML Semantics¶

In a horizontal merge, the attribute indicates the number of columns the cell should span. Only the leftmost cell is preserved; the remaining cells in the merge are deleted.

For merging vertically, the w:vMerge table cell property of the uppermost cell of the column is set to the value “restart” of type w:ST_Merge . The following, lower cells included in the vertical merge must have the w:vMerge element present in their cell property ( w:TcPr ) element. Its value should be set to “continue”, although it is not necessary to explicitely define it, as it is the default value. A vertical merge ends as soon as a cell w:TcPr element lacks the w:vMerge element. Similarly to the w:gridSpan element, the w:vMerge elements are only required when the table’s layout is not uniform across its different columns. In the case it is, only the topmost cell is kept; the other lower cells in the merged area are deleted along with their w:vMerge elements and the w:trHeight table row property is used to specify the combined height of the merged cells.

len() implementation for Row.cells and Column.cells¶

Each Row and Column object provides access to the collection of cells it contains. The length of these cell collections is unaffected by the presence of merged cells.

len() always bases its count on the layout grid, as though there were no merged cells.

  • len(Table.columns) is the number of w:gridCol elements, representing the number of grid columns, without regard to the presence of merged cells in the table.
  • len(Table.rows) is the number of w:tr elements, regardless of any merged cells that may be present in the table.
  • len(Row.cells) is the number of grid columns, regardless of whether any cells in the row are merged.
  • len(Column.cells) is the number of rows in the table, regardless of whether any cells in the column are merged.

Merging a cell already containing a span¶

One or both of the “diagonal corner” cells in a merge operation may itself be a merged cell, as long as the specified region is rectangular.

HTML Tables

HTML Table Example

Defining an HTML Table

An HTML table is defined with the

Each table row is defined with the

Example

Note: The

HTML Table — Adding a Border

If you do not specify a border for the table, it will be displayed without borders.

A border is set using the CSS border property:

Example

Remember to define borders for both the table and the table cells.

HTML Table — Collapsed Borders

If you want the borders to collapse into one border, add the CSS border-collapse property:

Example

HTML Table — Adding Cell Padding

Cell padding specifies the space between the cell content and its borders.

If you do not specify a padding, the table cells will be displayed without padding.

To set the padding, use the CSS padding property:

Example

HTML Table — Left-align Headings

By default, table headings are bold and centered.

To left-align the table headings, use the CSS text-align property:

Example

HTML Table — Adding Border Spacing

Border spacing specifies the space between the cells.

To set the border spacing for a table, use the CSS border-spacing property:

Example

Note: If the table has collapsed borders, border-spacing has no effect.

HTML Table — Cells that Span Many Columns

To make a cell span more than one column, use the colspan attribute:

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Example

HTML Table — Cells that Span Many Rows

To make a cell span more than one row, use the rowspan attribute:

Example

HTML Table — Adding a Caption

To add a caption to a table, use the tag:

Example

Note: The tag must be inserted immediately after the

A Special Style for One Table

To define a special style for a special table, add an id attribute to the table:

Example

Now you can define a special style for this table:

And add more styles:

Chapter Summary

  • Use the HTML

HTML Exercises

HTML Table Tags

For a complete list of all available HTML tags, visit our HTML Tag Reference.

LEARN MORE

COLOR PICKER

HOW TO

SHARE

CERTIFICATES

Report Error

If you want to report an error, or if you want to make a suggestion, do not hesitate to send us an e-mail:

Thank You For Helping Us!

Your message has been sent to W3Schools.

Top Tutorials

Top References

Top Examples

Web Certificates

W3Schools is optimized for learning, testing, and training. Examples might be simplified to improve reading and basic understanding. Tutorials, references, and examples are constantly reviewed to avoid errors, but we cannot warrant full correctness of all content. While using this site, you agree to have read and accepted our terms of use, cookie and privacy policy. Copyright 1999-2020 by Refsnes Data. All Rights Reserved.
Powered by W3.CSS.

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Format tables

Use the Control panel or Character panel to format text within a table—just like formatting text outside a table. In addition, two main dialog boxes help you format the table itself: Table Options and Cell Options. Use these dialog boxes to change the number of rows and columns, to change the appearance of the table border and fill, to determine the spacing above and below the table, to edit header and footer rows, and to add other table formatting.

Use the Table panel, the Control panel, or the context menu to format the table structure. Select one or more cells and then right-click (Windows) or Control-click (Mac OS) to display a context menu with table options.

Resize columns, rows, and tables

You can resize columns, rows, and tables using a number of different methods.

Resize columns and rows

  • In the Table panel, specify Column Width and Row Height settings.
  • Choose Table > Cell Options > Rows And Columns, specify Row Height and Column Width options, and then click OK.

If you select At Least to set a minimum row height, rows increase in height as you add text or increase the point size. If you select Exactly to set a fixed row height, the row height does not change when you add or remove text. A fixed row height often results in an overset condition in the cell. (See Work with overset cells.)

  • Position the pointer over the edge of a column or row so that a double-arrow icon ( ) appears, and then drag left or right to increase or decrease the column width, or drag up or down to increase or decrease row height.

By default, row height is determined by the slug height of the current font. Thus, row height also changes if you change the point size of type for entire rows of text, or if you change the row height setting. The maximum row height is determined by the Maximum setting in the Rows And Columns section of the Cell Options dialog box.

Resize rows or columns without changing the table width

  • Hold down Shift while dragging an inside row or column edge (not the table boundary). One row or column gets bigger as the other gets smaller.
  • To resize rows or columns proportionally, hold down Shift while dragging the right table border or bottom table edge.

Holding down Shift while dragging the right table edge will resize all the columns proportionally; holding down Shift while dragging the bottom table edge will resize all rows proportionally.

Resize the entire table

If the table spans more than one frame in a story, you cannot use the pointer to resize the entire table.

Distribute columns and rows evenly

Change the spacing before or after a table

Note that changing the spacing before the table does not affect the spacing of a table row that falls at the top of a frame.

Break tables across frames

Use Keep options to determine how many rows should remain together, or to specify where a row breaks, such as at the top of a column or frame.

When you create a table that is taller than the frame in which it resides, the frame is overset. If you thread the frame to another frame, the table continues in that frame. Rows move into threaded frames one at a time—you can’t break a single row across multiple frames. Specify header or footer rows to repeat information in the new frame.

If you create a single table that spans both pages of a spread, you may want to add a blank column in the middle of the table to create inset margins.

Add text before a table

A table is anchored to the paragraphs that immediately precede and follow it. If you insert a table at the beginning of the text frame, you can’t click above the table to place an insertion point. Instead, use the arrow keys to move the insertion point before the table.

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Place the insertion point at the beginning of the paragraph in the first cell, press the left arrow key, and begin typing.

Format text within a table

In general, use the same methods to format text in a table that you would use to format text that’s not in a table.

Insert tabs into a table cell

When the insertion point is in a table, pressing Tab moves the insertion point to the next cell. However, you can insert a tab within a table cell. Use the Tabs panel to define tab settings in the table. Tab settings affect the paragraph in which the insertion point is placed.

To change tab settings, select the columns or cells you want to affect, choose Type > Tabs to display the Tabs panel, and then adjust tab settings.

When you use the Tabs ruler to apply a decimal tab to a cell or group of cells, you usually don’t need to press Tab at the beginning of each paragraph to decimal-align the text in the cells. Paragraphs are automatically aligned on the decimal character, unless the paragraph contains additional formatting, such as center alignment, that overrides the decimal tab.

Change the alignment of text within a table cell

If you select Justify, specify the Paragraph Spacing Limit; this will set a maximum amount of space to be added between paragraphs. (See Align or justify text vertically within a text frame.)

The settings are the same as the corresponding settings in the Text Frame Options dialog box. (See Change text frame properties.)

To change the horizontal alignment of text within a cell, use the alignment option in the Paragraph panel. To align text in a cell to a decimal tab, use the Tabs panel to add a decimal tab setting.

Rotate text in a cell

Change cell inset spacing

You can set the cell inset spacing for both text (containing text) and graphic (containing graphics) cells.

Text cells

In many cases, increasing the cell inset spacing will increase the row height. If the row height is set at a fixed value, make sure that you leave enough room for the inset values, to avoid causing overset text.

Graphic cells

Using the Selection tool , select the cell containing the graphic.

If you are unable to select the cell, click the link or embed symbol in the upper-right corner of the cell and press Esc.

Choose Table > Cell Options > Graphics.

Merge and split cells

You can merge (combine) or split (divide) cells in a table.

Merge cells

You can combine two or more cells in the same row or column into a single cell. For example, you can merge the cells in the top row of the table to create a single cell to be used for the table title.

Unmerge cells

Split cells

You can split cells horizontally or vertically, which is especially useful when creating form tables. You can select multiple cells and split them vertically or horizontally.

Work with overset cells

In most cases, a table cell will expand vertically to accommodate new text and graphics being added. However, if you set a fixed row height and add text or graphics that are too large for the cell, a small red dot appears in the lower-right corner of the cell, indicating that the cell is overset.

You cannot flow overset text into another cell. Instead, edit or resize the contents, or expand the cell or the text frame in which the table appears.

In the case of inline graphics or text with fixed leading, it is possible for the cell contents to extend beyond cell edges. You can select the Clip Contents To Cell option, so that any text or inline graphics that otherwise extend beyond any cell edge are clipped to the cell boundary. However, when inline graphics are overset to extend beyond cell bottom edges (Horizontal), this does not apply.

Html table merge cells

I need help creating a macro which will merge particular cells within a table for multiple rows but leave the rows separate.

In my table I’ve got 8 columns and 20 rows. In each of the 20 rows I want to merge the data in columns 2, 3 & 4.

I’ve picked up the following macro which will merge the Cells but I need it to loop through the rest of the table.

Sub MergeCellsRowByRow()

‘ MergeCellsRowByRow Macro


Dim myCells As Range
Dim r As Row
With ActiveDocument
Set myCells = .Range(Start:=.Tables(1).Cell(1, 2).Range.Start, End:=.Tables(1).Cell(1, 4).Range.End)
myCells.Select
End With

Thanks in advance

This is a follow on from my previous thread. I need to create a macro which will loop through tables in word (or be able to specify which table I want to update) and then perform the row by row column merge as provided to me over the weekend.

Dim Rng As Range, TblRw As Row
With ActiveDocument.Tables(1)
For Each TblRw In .Rows
Set Rng = TblRw.Cells(2).Range
Rng.End = TblRw.Cells(3).Range.End
Rng.Cells.Merge
Next
End With
End Sub

My word document has a number of tables which each have a different numbers of columns/rows and it’s only one particular table in my document that I need to run the above merge for.

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